Olive tree - Olive
The olive tree is a rustic tree, that admits a semi-arid climate and fertile and little superficial grounds, although in these conditions the productivity is low. When they are applied suitable agronomic techniques improve the vegetation and the production. Sometimes one says that the culture has been following just as for two millenia; nevertheless, at present the olive-grower has numerous techniques that demonstrate that the progress has also affected this artisan basic culture and of so remote origin. The plantation of a modern olive grove must take place in fertile ground or. at least, with aptitude for this culture, choosing the variety and the densidad that is deduced after an analysis of means and the objectives to obtain.
The fruit of the olive tree is a fleshy drupe with a single seed in the interior and is formed by three parts: the outer part or esocarpo or rind, the part median or mesocarpo or pulp from which to oil 70% of and internal part or endocarpo remove or hazel from which rest 30% removes about from the oil.
Some of the typical of the olive are:
- They make lack between 4 and 5 kg of olives to produce 1 l. of olive oil.
- The age of the tree only influences the amount produced, not on the quality. An olive tree begins to produce from the 5 or 10 years and from the 100, its production begins to decline.
- The color of the olive is not bound to the variety, but to its stage of maturation. The olives are green at the outset, becoming black when maturing.
Spain is a very rich country as far as cultivated varieties of olive tree (More than 250), reason why to make a list with the characteristics of all of them, would be a very complex work. For that reason as a example, we only pick up the characteristics of the existing ones in the zone of Alcaudete.
It constitutes the extended variety more not only in Spain, but also in the world, representing 20% of the world-wide olive grove. One calculates that in Spain it reaches 50% being the zone of Andalusia where reaches a greater diffusion. Considered by many like the best variety of the world. She is majority in the province of Jaén and the denominations of origin "Sierra de Segura", "Baena", "Priego de Córdoba", y "Sierra Magina". A very important characteristic of the picuales olive trees is its high productivity. This has influenced in an intensification of its plantations. In addition the tree perfectly adapts to diverse conditions of climate and ground being tolerant to the frosts. The unique factors detrimental for this variety are the very limestone droughts and lands. The Picual variety has a high greasy yield that can reach 25%, a high index of stability (by its high content in polifenoles) and a high oleic acid content. We will also emphasize its high resistance to the enranciamiento thanks to the amount of antioxidants of natural origin that contains. Its oil owns a great force, afrutado flavor, an intense bitterness and clear sharp tones. The mountain oils usually are smoother than those of level and have a fresher and pleasant flavor.
The picudo, also is well-known like rough of Cordova since she is very characteristic of this province. In the town of Luque “Pajarero” is called to him because it says that its oil is so sweet that at the time of the maturation the birds prick the fruits. The greasy yield is high, without arriving at the values of the picual, but with numbers near 20%. The olives long-beaked also are destined for table consumption. Balances with a great dulzura are oils very. By its fatty acid composition, the long-beaked one is placed in the delicate oil range before the oxidation, reason why it is complemented with other varieties like the picual. This variety is protected by the denomination of origin of Baena and Priego of Cordova.